women in sports are often underrepresented in science
Women were officially allowed to compete in 1971, and Boston won the first women\'s championship in 1972 --
Also see the year the ninth title passed-
The amendment prohibits gender-based discrimination in education programs or in any program that receives federal funding.
This year, 13,751 women crossed the finish line of the Boston Marathon and became 45% women.
In the past 50 years, from weight lifting to rugby to wrestling, other sports have also been popular with women.
Of course, women can also do non-competitive exercises, lift weights, maintain yoga poses, and exercise for a few hours on the runway and in the gym.
Women make up for their historical bias in sports.
Not surprisingly, sports science has also been biased in history.
\"If you keep going back to 1950 years old, a lot of sports physiology research on metabolism is talking about 150 years old. pound-
Bruce gladard says he is a sports psychologist at Auburn University in Alabama and editor-in-chief of the magazine.
\"That\'s an ordinary medical student.
He explained: \"It\'s a convenient question to look at the people who are closest at hand.
Over time, athletes
Convenient group of students)
But the diversity of research on these athletes is still lagging behind.
When Joe Costello, a sports psychologist at the University of Portsmouth in the UK, began studying the effects of extreme sports on athlete training recovery, he found that women were in poor physical condition
Compared to men, it is represented in the field.
He said he would like to know that the \"comprehensive case in the field of sports science\" is the excavation of three influential journals in the field --
Costello and his colleagues analyzed 1,382 articles published from 2011 to 2013, with a total of more than 6 million participants.
In April 2014, the proportion of female participants in each article was about 36%, and women accounted for 39% of the total participants.
\"It\'s not enough in my opinion,\" he said . \"
He pointed out that these numbers are relatively close to gender segmentation in competitive sports, but the proportion of non-competitive sports and leisure running is close to 50: 50, which is not reflected in the study.
Despite the gaps, Costello\'s research does show that women are generally representative in sports science research.
But I wonder if the trend is improving.
If the type of research is important.
For example, do scientists study women in metabolic research, but ignore them in injury research? I checked the published research in two top sports physiology journals and found that women are still below
Especially in performance research.
The reason for this deficiency
From the menstrual cycle to capital to simple logistics, there are many delegates.
However, due to the gender equality of recent funding agencies, the rationale is no longer an excuse.
When it comes to fitness competitions, women have come out of the starting line, but there are still some areas where science needs to catch up.
I followed the leadership of Costello to study the study published in the journal and this time to study the first five months of 2015 (
Previous journals had free articles before May 2015;
The latter allows me access.
The third journal in The previous study, The, only allowed me to access one caseby-case basis).
I excluded single case studies, animal studies, cell studies, studies involving corpses, and studies involving assessments by coaches or doctors.
I also excluded studies that did not give a gender breakdown of participants (
11 studies, including people, did not mention the gender of the participants)
, And studies that have no reason to include women (
Such as those recovering from prostate cancer).
This left me with 188 studies including 254,813 participants.
Of the 188 studies, at least some women participated in 138 or 73%.
Overall, however, women accounted for only 42% of participants.
While 27% of the studies included only men, only 4% of the studies were for women.
These results are similar to those presented by Costello and his team in 2014.
But I also want to know why these women are learning.
I divided 188 studies into six categories: Research on metabolism, obesity, weight loss and diabetes (
Total number of studies)
Women participated in 87% of the study, 45% of the participants, close to gender equality.
Non-metabolic diseases (18 studies)
85% of the studies included women, who accounted for 44% of the participants.
In 188 studies, the number of studies involving women ranged from 36% in performance to 100% in social studies.
Basic physiological research (
Total number of studies)
Including the study of knee and muscle function and the study of people in weightlessness, 45% of the study included women, accounting for 42% of all participants.
In 100% of social studies, women (seven papers)
60% per cent of participants.
These studies include self-
Cognition, how people insist on wearing activity trackers, and the impact of meeting
Take part in the exercise group.
\"Women are more likely to participate [or]
Recruited to participate in more group training programs than men, \"noted Charlotte geriman, a sports psychologist at the University of Leicester in the UK.
The most significant difference was in the study of motor performance and motor injury.
There are 102 studies on sports injuries and recovery, from concussion and elbow and shoulder repair for baseball players to injury for surfers.
Of these studies, 80% were female, but 40% were female.
I\'m particularly interested in a lot of research (38 total)
Knee and ACL repair.
In these studies, women were among 94% of the studies, but only about 42% of the participants.
\"In this case, you will think there will be more emphasis,\" Gladden notes . \".
\"ACL injuries are more common among female athletes.
\"Of the 250,000 studies analyzed, most of the more than 188 participants were men, especially in the analysis of motor performance and injuries.
But the biggest difference is movement.
Training for better, faster recovery and stronger performance.
Of the 30 studies, 39% were women and women accounted for nearly 40% of the participants.
However, a single study of more than 90,000 participants severely distorted the results, which investigated gender differences during the marathon.
When the study was removed, the total number of participants in all performance studies decreased to 4,001.
The percentage of female participants decreased accordinglyto 3 percent.
Scientists may try to understand the secrets of the best athletes, but to do so, they are mainly looking for men.
There are many reasons why women may be inadequate.
Representative of sports science.
In biological research, one of the reasons that plague many sexual behaviors is the same --
Monthly hormone cycle, \"[we]have to test [women]
At some stages, \"even if you\'re working on something that seems unrelated, like knee pain, Mark, a neurometabolism expert at McMaster University, explains that he has looked extensively at gender differences in exercise
\"Which stage do you have to choose --
Follicle or progesterone phase
So I think it would be easier to get men in at any time when there is a limited amount of money for the pathologist.
For some types of research, scientists point out that gender differences were not found in previous studies.
So scientists only study human beings.
Don\'t worry about the menstrual cycle-
And apply the results to women.
But \"it\'s not good enough,\" says Jelleyman . \".
\"Just to say that because it works in men and there is no gender difference found in previous studies, we think it works for women as well-you have to show it.
\"Many scientists are concerned that circulating hormones mean variable data points, so it is easier to study men and declare that these results may also apply to women.
But Mary Murphy, a sports scientist at Ulster University in Northern Ireland, said it was a police officer.
\"If you visit [again [women]
\"At the same stage, they shouldn\'t be more volatile than a man,\" she notes . \".
\"You come back to them after 28 days, which is easy enough.
It is not difficult to do this.
But I think you\'ll find it if you\'re looking for an excuse.
\"Using this excuse may mean a lack of important differences.
Before the Boston Olympics in 1966, many people
Long-distance running and extreme sports are considered unhealthy for women.
After studying the metabolism of men and women in endurance exercise in his lab, his team found that \"women are at least as good as men, if they can\'t withstand the rigors of exercise better.
But leaving aside the menstrual cycle, research is expensive, especially for people involved.
In many cases, the only way to get the work done on time within the budget is to simplify the study population.
As a member of the coaching team associated with elite athletes, Louise Burke, a sports nutritionist at the Australian Institute of Physical Education, said she seized her research opportunities where they could be found.
For a recent study of male walking athletes, she said: \"When we decided to do this study, I do think we will have female walking athletes . \".
But she found that there were very few potential female participants.
\"We don\'t have much in Canberra,\" she recalls . \".
\"In those matches with the right caliber, we had some injuries and a couple were playing a game that couldn\'t be offered.
\"When the Logistics Department shot down a gender in a study, it would be women who lost it.
\"Conference organizers are careful, including workshops on gender differences,\" said John Holly, a sports psychologist at the Catholic University in Australia . \".
However, there may be challenges when actually conducting research.
Many of Holly\'s studies are invasive and involve a biopsy that leaves scars.
Many women do not want to be hurt by science.
\"If I take the triathlon and say to women, \'We want to do invasive work, \'they\'re like \'Oh, there\'s no biopsy,\'\" Holly said \'. \".
\"This is a legitimate practical issue.
\"Finally, there are also cultural reasons for the low number of women.
Female athletes do not have the same TV time as male athletes, nor do athletes, although in football, there are more female national teams than male athletes.
This difference may also lead [gender]
Gladden believes that there are differences in performance research.
\"Unfortunately, science is not immune to these problems.
Continue to call for equality in sports research.
In a recent article, Murphy looked at the parade issue and found that 13 of the papers in the issue included 852 participants, but only 103 women, the frustrating participation rate is only 12%.
There are similar findings in other areas of research, but sports science needs to be done better, Murphy noted.
\"It\'s very simple,\" she said . \"
\"If we want to apply the findings to both men and women, we need to test our assumptions and take steps in studies involving both men and women.
\"The lack of equality among female research participants\" should be shocking, Hawley said.
He noted that while scientists took some responsibility, \"funding agencies and editors of journals should raise more serious questions.
Looking back on each other\'s work, he said, there should also be some tricky questions to ask.
\"Peer review has also failed . . . . . .
Typical reaction [are]
\"Women are not allowed in the budget, unfortunately \"(
A complete white lie of course)
Time and reality.
This is not an excuse.
\"The same is true in many fields of science, and as more and more women join the ranks of scientists working on research exercises, they are more likely to include women in research.
But Murphy pointed out that this does not solve the problem.
\"I don\'t think scientists will think of this unless they are particularly interested in the field,\" she said . \".
\"There are very good female researchers [
In sports science
But they study men, men study men!
We did nothing to help ourselves.
\"The broader impact of this gender imbalance is that training, fitness and diet advice for performance and recovery is based on science, which may only be done in men and then narrowed down to be suitable for women
Sometimes there may be no difference.
But the road to stronger, better, faster, and healthier, if it is finally possible, is a path to research that includes everyone.
\"It is important to show that the general principles of exercise effectiveness apply to all populations, whether male or female, older or younger, ethnic differences or people with illness,\" said Jelleyman . \".
\"Sometimes there will be differences, and there will be fewer other times.
However, it is still important to know this so that advice can be made based on the relevant evidence.