sniffing out human pheromones
After all, spraying a sexy scent can give you the aromatic edge you need to attract elusive partners.
While Internet companies may claim a scientific basis for their spray, it may not be so sweet.
Tristam Wyatt, a zoologist at the University of Oxford in the UK, published in the journal, and he believes that most of the human information hormone research has hardly recommended it.
He suggested that starting from scratch, there is a set of strict guidelines for good information on the study of information hormones.
In order to understand why the human information element is a controversial topic, you must start with the meaning of the word \"information element.
Most scientists believe that information hormones are a chemical signal that can help individuals in the same species communicate.
Perhaps chemicals can produce specific behaviors, or cause puberty or heat.
But after that, things became blurred.
It is said that the signal needs to produce a natural behavioral response in the recipient.
Others say the reaction may be natural or the day after tomorrow.
It is said that the evolution of chemicals must be a signal.
Others say it may be accidental.
\"The question with filomeng is that depending on who you are asking, you will get a different definition,\" said Darren Logan, an olfactory geneticist at Wellcombe Trust sangge Institute in Hinxton, UK.
Some researchers even say that, in general, filomeng does not exist.
\"It\'s an attractive concept with mysterious things surrounding controlling behavior,\" said Richard Doty, who studied smell and taste at the University of Pennsylvania.
But, he notes, \"First of all, I really question the scientific validity of the concept of filomon.
Everyone defines it as what they want.
The word has lost any real meaning.
\"This public view of filomeng is driven mainly by some hot research.
People stare at the smell and see if they can determine the gender of the painting.
Women breathe in the smell of sweat-wet shirts for their partner\'s choice.
However, many of these studies have problems.
\"There is a huge publishing bias.
We know that many interesting results will never be replicated, \"said Stockholm Olsson.
\"This is a common problem in science.
But in the field of information hormones, it\'s a bigger problem because the results are so sensational.
In fact, the field has become so controversial that he has completely avoided using the term, says Olsen.
In addition to replication, Wyatt notes that none of the chemicals identified as human felomeng are biologically related to humans.
No supposed filomeng was separated from human secretions, synthesized and placed under the human nose to have a reliable effect on behavior.
Wyatt explained: \"I saw excellent scientists being transferred to a wild goose chase where they took the time and effort to study molecules that were not based.
Think about the pig.
One of the most frequent
The study found that human filomeng is a kind of filomeng produced by male pigs, which will make female pigs fever.
It can also be found in human sweat.
It seems logical that they are also human felomeng.
But there is more sweat than filomeng.
\"There are thousands of chemicals under the human arm,\" Logan said . \".
\"We share some of these [with pigs]
Because we are mammals, they may not work in our behavior.
\"In the case of androids, the inheritance of odor receptors leads to different odor experiences.
Some reported that there was a taste of \"sweat stream sweaty back\" while others reported that it smelled sweet.
Some people can\'t smell it at all.
But xionglong has commercial use in raising pigs, so you can buy it. the chemical]
You can get off the shelf without having to do difficult chemistry and analysis, \"said Wyatt.
Therefore, this molecule is easily available for research.
But there is not much evidence, says Wyatt, that adrenenstenone may be a human hormone.
He said that the sample size of many papers is small and the experimental design is poor.
After several years of research on the chemical, a kind of information hormone echo chamber was found.
\"When the paper makes a comment, they go to other people who have already used the molecules, and they have no reason to question that they are filomeng.
\"Then Androstenone has never really been evaluated as to what kind of human behavior it might lead.
It may be that women sit closer to men.
But is this a chemical signal, or is it a learning response that people are used to or are taught to like to smell the body? We often react to smells, not because of something innate, but because of our culture, says Olsen.
\"Let\'s say I observe a person with sweaty\'s back in a sweat stream who continues to evade behavior on the bus,\" he explains . \".
\"I can identify this molecule, which helps to avoid it, but from a psychological point of view, is it eligible to be used as a sex hormone, and I would say that this person smells bad, this is unacceptable in our society.
\"Humans may show an act, but that does not mean that there is an element in the mixture.
Wyatt believes that in order to establish a human chemical signal with consistent behavioral effects, scientists need to go back to the first principle.
He put forward a series of experiments to prove the existence of sex hormones in human beings.
First of all, it is confirmed that chemical odors produce specific behaviors or physical reactions.
Then, determine exactly which chemical produced the reaction.
Synthesize this chemical in the lab.
Finally, it is indicated that this synthetic chemical is required to produce a reaction and no other chemical is required.
Check all of these boxes and you may have found a human hormone.
This sounds relatively simple and clear, and if you do a test on a lab animal, maybe so.
However, it may be more challenging to try to do such experiments in adults to identify the sex hormones.
First of all, you want to test that the secretion of sweat is probably the least embarrassing option or the easiest to get, but will it contain the chemical you want? If you want to induce the reaction, what behavioral response should be generated, and if you are looking for physical signs of hormone levels awakening, how do you make sure that the reaction is the result of the chemical, Logan notes, this is not a problem where our culture teaches us to prefer one scent to another, but rather to find the problem of money doing these studies in the first place.
\"If you are treating cancer, you have money,\" he said . \".
\"But if you want to figure out if the chemicals will make you feel a little sexy, who is funding\" Wyatt thinks, who might be the best chance to find the first established human sex hormone in a newborn baby.
The French team, led by Benoist Schaal, has been checking for breast chemical secretions from new mothers.
The researchers believe that the chemicals produced by the glands around the nipple will increase the oral movement of newborns, which may lead to better locking and more effective early breastfeeding attempts between the mother and the child.
If there is a chemical that is responsible, it may conform to the definition of a sex hormone: a chemical signal that produces reliable behavioral effects between two members of the same species.
Building a sex hormone that works between the mother and the child may not be as sexy as stimulating sex, but it may also be easier to achieve.
The newly born child has no cultural infusion of what she should or should not like.
There may be a chemical signal for all mothers, although it is not certain what the chemical is.
According to Wyatt, research like Schaal is the greatest hope of finding filomeng in humans.
\"In rats, sheep, elephants, goats and rabbits, molecules have proved to be effective,\" he noted . \".
\"We are just another mammal with a bad smell.
\"The trick will be to reliably link the right chemicals to the right behavior.
\"The chemistry is getting more complicated,\" says Wyatt . \".
\"But if we are going to make any progress with humanity, I think we need to start over.