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pluto is even colder than it should be

by:Teesso     2019-09-11
When the New Horizons spacecraft arrived at Pluto in 2015, the probe revealed the true nature of the dwarf: of course, Pluto was a frozen lump, but it was a strange and interesting lump.
Pluto has a heart.
It is theoretically possible to hide the shape of the ice cap of the ocean.
There is no obvious reason that Pluto will spit out X-rays.
When the New Horizons observed the temperature of Pluto, the dwarf planet was cold.
It\'s colder than anyone predicted.
The researchers were confused.
Earth instruments measure negative Pluto-
280 degrees Fahrenheit
The New Horizon says Pluto\'s thermostat is set below 330 degrees.
Pluto makes the coldest place on Earth look very mild: on 2013, researchers announced that a NASA satellite observed a 135 South Pole chill.
Humans can survive for 3 minutes at temperature.
You think Pluto will be cold.
Dwarf planets drift on the rear roads of the solar system at an average distance of 3 kilometers.
It\'s 67 billion miles from the sun.
The Earth is nearly 40 times closer to our stars.
Pluto is small, which means it has weak gravity.
Its atmosphere leaks into space and lacks strong grip.
In fact, the thin atmosphere of Pluto makes it very difficult to estimate its temperature from Earth, said Xi Zhang, a planetary scientist at the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Pluto is not far from Earth, and its atmospheric chemicals are immune to sunlight.
The researchers assumed that the sun\'s ultraviolet rays would break down nitrogen, methane and other gases in Pluto\'s atmosphere and produce smoke from solid particles.
\"The image of the New Horizon basically shows a lot of haze particles,\" Zhang said . \".
In a report published this week in Nature, Zhang and his colleagues argued that Pluto\'s hazy shell explains why dwarf planets are extra --chilly.
Pluto\'s smoke is very rich and can absorb a lot of solar radiation, although there is a lot of uncertainty about this complex atmospheric chemistry, Zhang said.
\"We really don\'t know the detailed components of the smog particles,\" he said . \".
It is well known that in Pluto\'s atmosphere hundreds of miles away, smog has begun to form.
Gas condenses on particles.
The particles fall down and chain together, just like the formation of the paratrooper --
Except that the chemical cluster does not break before landing.
The New Horizons probe the thick layers of these hydrocarbon particles known as the Thomson, which painted the surface of Pluto red.
It is crucial that the haze particles are much larger than the gas molecules, which means that the haze has a greater ability to heat up and cool down.
Zhang and his colleagues modeled the heat transfer in Pluto\'s atmosphere and found that the net effect was cooling;
The smog absorbs solar energy and radiates it into space, which is a bit like sweat and takes away the body\'s heat.
Previous assumptions indicate that the coolant is a gas hydrogen cyanide.
However, a recent probe of Pluto found that there was too little gas, Zhang said.
Water vapor may also make Pluto shudder, but Zhang says the prospect is doubtful because a lot of water vapor is needed.
California Institute of Technology\'s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Planet atmospheric expert Robert West, described the conclusion as \"remarkable\" in a subsequent Nature review \".
But West also wrote, \"our understanding of Pluto\'s atmospheric temperature is not over yet.
\"The study author\'s model shows that Pluto\'s smoke radiates heat into space in the infrared spectrum.
New Horizons are not equipped with the function of observation.
Researchers may get an answer within two years.
The James Webb Telescope, which is scheduled to launch into space on 2019, will have the right instruments.
\"This is probably the best telescope we have ever built,\" said Zhang . \"
Once targeting Pluto, the Webb telescope will show if the dwarf is really sweating in the infrared.
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