assessing transferable residues from intermittent exposure to flea control collars containing the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos
In the current study, 48 pet dogs (
24 of the two studies)
For different varieties and weightsthe-
Anti-flea collar containing chlorfos (CP)
The transferable pesticide residues were quantified on cotton gloves used to rub dogs for 5 minutes and cotton T-shirts worn by children (Study 2 only).
The first morning urine sample was also obtained for adults and children in two studies of metabolites (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol)quantification.
In Study 1, blood samples and plasma che were obtained from treated dogs (ChE)
Activities were monitored.
The transferable residue of all compounds on gloves is the highest near the dog\'s neck and the lowest in the farthest place from the neck.
Friction samples (On the collar)
Two weeks later.
The collar app contains 447 ± 57 μg CP/glove while the back fur sample contains 8 ± 2 μg CP/glove.
In Study 2, a cotton T-shirt worn by children after 15 days
The collar application of the 4 u2009 h shows that the CP level is 13 4 ± 66 ng/g shirt.
There is a significant difference in the level of urinary metabolites in adults and children, and the level of urinary metabolites in children is usually higher than in adults (grand mean±SE; 11. 6±1. 1 and 7. 9±0.
74 mg/mg of incoside for children and adults, respectively, compared to 9. 4±0. 8 and 6. 9±0.
5 ng/mg notin before collar placement).
As a result, there is little evidence that the use of this flea collar helps to increase CP exposure in children or adults.
These experiments were designed to determine the level of residue transferred to white cotton gloves when rubbing the dog\'s back in three positions: close to the bottom of the tail, on the neck to remove the collar, on the neck where the collar is in place.
CP residues in T-shirts worn by children estimate potential exposure and absorption of pesticides, with an average of 4-
The h cycle of the selected time after the application of pesticides, and the TCPy level in the first morning urine sample the next morning after wearing a T-shirt.
On the same sampling day, urine TCPy was also monitored by an adult in the family.
Two research designs were used in each study, with a total of 24 households participating.
Participating families are volunteers who often use flea control products on pet dogs.
Study 1 is a long one.
Long term study for 168 days as the collar recommended by the manufacturer is 6-month use.
Monitor pet samples, plasma che in dogs, and urine metabolites in children and adults.
Based on the results of this study, study 2 was conducted within 21 days, where samples were sampled, residual samples of CP in T-shirts worn by children, and urine metabolites in children and adults were monitored.
Used flea collar (Zodiac—
PowerBrand, 8% CP;
Manufactured by Wellmark, Bensenville, IL, United States of America)
Donated by the manufacturer.
All solvents used are Optima grade (
Suitable for gas chromatography)
From Fisher science.
The CP standard is greater than 99% pure, obtained from the Chem service (
PA, West Chester, USA).
TCPy analysis kit was obtained from strategic diagnosis (Newark, United States).
Incoside kits and all chemicals for che analysis were purchased from Sigma Chemical (
St. Louis, Missouri, USA).
The care and use of dogs is in line with the clinical facilities of the Mississippi State University Veterinary College.
The facility is certified by the Association for evaluation and certification of experimental animal care (AAALAC).
Dogs used in both studies were monitored by the project veterinarian (J. W. T. ).
The Department of Animal Care and Use of Mississippi State University previously approved all procedures for use.
A variety of dogs are selected from employees of the Mississippi State University Veterinary College or pet owners of students.
1 month before the start of the research program, each dog was exposed to no known organophosphate compound, weighing at least 10 pounds lbs, at least 4 months old.
Male and female dogs were used in the study;
However, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are not included.
During the study, participants agreed not to use any other product containing organic phosphate pesticides inside or around their pets and the home.
Human test subjects are residents of the same family as dogs.
Each participating family has a child (either gender)
In the age range of 3-12 years old, they often play with dogs, an adult with both men and women involved, often using flea control products on their dogs.
The age, gender, height and weight of children and adult subjects were recorded, as well as an estimate of the time and extent of exposure of children and adults to dogs on the day of T-shirt samples (
This is the day before the urine sample).
Participants were provided with a description of the agreement and informed consent form was obtained from adults.
The children were verbally informed of the procedure and received verbal or written consent from them and their parents.
The sampling scheme and approval form described below has been approved by the Review Committee of the body research institute of Mississippi State University.
As mentioned earlier, the dogs are rubbed in an area marked with 10 × 25 cm for 5 min ().
The gloves were washed before.
Extraction with Asian nail blue helps to reduce interference, loose cotton fiber content.
There is a lot of pressure on friction in both directions.
In order to avoid cross-contamination, the following three samples were taken :(1)
Close to the bottom of the tail; (2)
Remove the collar from the neck; and (3)
Neck with collar back in place (i. e.
Rub on the collar).
Design these three samples for evaluation respectively :(1)
The migration of pesticides from the collar to the distance of the body; (2)
Transfer pesticides from the collar to the fur near the collar; and (3)
Transfer pesticides from the collar itself.
Two studies were conducted with different sampling times.
In Study 1, a friction sample was obtained before the collar was placed (day 0)
, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140 and 168 days after the collar is placed at 4 Thanh.
In Study 2, a friction sample was obtained before the collar was placed (day 0)
, Then 14 and 20 days after the collar is placed.
In Study 2, each child subject was given a new, clean (
Washed but no solvent. extracted), short-
Long-sleeved white cotton T-shirt worn the day before treatment (day 0)
After 1, 4, 8, 15 and 20 days
Each T-shirt wears an average of 4 km/h in the afternoon and evening of the sampling day, and each child is instructed not to change his/her normal behavior towards the dog.
At the end of the day, the T-shirt was put into the solvent-
Cleaning glass bottles for subsequent extraction. A 100-
Cut out the cm part from the front chest area of each shirt for extraction, as this area is the area in which the shirt is most likely to contain residues from children\'s interaction with the dog.
In Study 1, one child and one adult in each family obtained urine samples before the collar application and 3, 7, 28, 84 and 168 days after the collar application.
For Study 2, before and after 16-21 days of collar application, urine samples were collected from children wearing T-shirts and an adult in the same family
In both studies, first morning urine samples were collected and participants were instructed to collect the entire gap ().
After collection, bring the samples to our laboratory, acid with concentrated hydrochloric acid to release any combined TCPy and freeze to the analysis ().
The gloves and T-shirts used to collect residual samples are 100% cotton.
As mentioned earlier, gloves used in both studies are stored, extracted and analyzed ().
The CP residue in the T-shirt is determined using the same procedure described in the glove, except for the sub-Alpha chlorine pre-Extract steps.
Determination of the concentration of TCPy in urine samples using a rapid analysis of trichlorpyazole test kit (A00208;
Strategic diagnosis, Newark, United States of America)
An elisa method (ELISA)
For the determination of TCPy and related compounds ().
Neither CP nor trichlopyr, the parent compound that produced TCPy as metabolites, showed any cross-over
Reactivity in analysis.
Urine TCPy levels in adults and children were adjusted to urinary urea concentrations (
Age 3-12 years)().
The content of urinary incoside was determined by luminosity determination at 500nm with incoside kit (
Sigma diagnostics, St. Louis, Missouri, USA;
In Study 1, blood samples were taken from each dog at the same time as the friction sample.
After collection, blood samples were centrifuge to obtain plasma and che stored at 4 °c overnight (ChE)
The activity is determined within 24 hours of collection, as described earlier ().
Determination was performed using a combination of the following inhibitors and substrates to study plasma enzymes: butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)
With Ding thiocilin (BTCh)
Iodine as a substrate and four-isoprodiammonium phosphate amine (iso-OMPA)
As an inhibitor, and a deethyl enzyme (AChE)
Use B-thiocin (ATCh)
Iodine as a substrate and eserine sulfate as an inhibitor.
All analysis is a modification of the program described in the middle, which is based on. . .
Protein concentration was determined by standardized methods.
Use the GLM program of the Windows 8 SAS System for variance analysis calculation. 2, using the 0.
Level 05 significance.
When significant differences between treatment groups were found, the mean values were separated using the minimum significant difference test.
Evaluation of the clinical importance of differences using confidence intervals (). Each data set (
Gloves, T-shirts and adjusted urine)
Use one-analyze each collar or age group individually
Variance analysis of random complete block design (
Households are blocking factors).
The Spelman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the possible correlation between chlorfos transferable residues, T-shirt wearing time, time between adults and children with dogs, and urine TCPy concentrations.
Calculate using the CORR program of the SAS system for Windows 9. 1 (
SAS Institute Limited, Cary NC, USA).
The significance level is 0. 05.