\"a haven of refuge\" the beulah home.
She has been out with a young man who looks good and she thinks maybe the two of them will live together.
But then she found out she was pregnant.
The young man claimed it was not his problem.
What is she going to do?
She will not be able to keep the job of the telephone operator.
Even if she can afford to pay for the house, her landlord will not let her stay there.
Who will help her when she gives birth? Andafterwards?
No one will hire someone with children to take care.
Where can she turn?
For hundreds of young women in this situation, Beulah Home is a popular sanctuary.
From 1909 to 1964, it is home to pregnant women and babies without other resources. (2)
Why are they in such trouble?
Because they\'re not married. -
They are unmarried mothers.
The only difference between a woman who needs a Beulah family and a woman who doesn\'t need a Beulah family is that there is no wedding license.
If she gets married during her pregnancy, most (if not all) of the stigma disappears, but society will not tolerate childbirth outside of marriage.
Society at that time was hostile to mothers without husbands.
Karen Bridget Murray said that in 19-
For example, in the century of Ontario, unmarried mothers may be prosecuted for violating their marriage commitments.
Her father may sue for her temptation. -
For the loss of her services, for the cost of raising a child, and for the loss of honor ---
She has both her father. (3)
Financial issues may be part of the story, but losing honor is another matter.
With the development of urbanization and industrialism, there is growing concern about women who are pregnant without marriage.
Many women and girls should work in big cities.
In Ontario, the Salvation Army, the Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church and the British National Church have built homes for unmarried pregnant women and their babies.
Women who run these families believe in the importance of their work.
As Gertrude Hill, first director of Humewood House in Toronto, said: \"Working with an unmarried mother is an integral part of \'forming. . .
For the benefit of \"building\" the country, therefore, the children. . .
The whole world. \'\" (4)
The Beulah Home in Edmonton fits this mode.
Beulah Home was originally part of the inner city Christian mission to provide a Home for pregnant women who need it.
It\'s called the Beulah home, which is important ---
It is not only called a Home with all the thatimplies, but it is the Beulah Home, the term in the Bible for the promised land.
It literally means a married or married woman, and the founder of this family will know that.
This is recorded in Isaiah 62: 4, where God tells the Hebrews that they are no longer referred to as abandoned or as desolate land.
Instead, they will be called Hephzibah (
I like her)
Their land will be called beulah (Married). (5)
John Bunyan used the name Beulah, a progress made by pilgrims as a place of abundance where tired pilgrims can rest. (6)
Therefore, Beulah Home was originally a welcome place for women in need of service.
This is a place that is clearly Christian, where supporters and staff want women to find God.
The reason for unmarried pregnancy is religious, but they are very sympathetic to the women they serve.
As the handwritten speech of 1914 said: in the same speech, the Speaker blamed the responsibility on men, a \"floating population\" and an \"irresponsible transitional class\" who had no reputation to protect, so careless. (7)
Women who set up the home of Beulah-
Royal Institute for International Affairs and ClaraSchafer--
It is a member of the Christian Mennonite brothers and is part of the sacred movement, a loose affiliate that was originally born out of the camp meeting movement in New York state.
They can be described as people who are passionate about the relationship with God, which goes beyond moral conduct and formal worship.
They believe in instant conversion and redemption and try to serve them in society. (8)
Mode Chatham describes the founding of the mission of Edmonton Beulah: there is no doubt that the sincerity of women who believe that life can be changed by conversion.
It is this belief that supports the work of Beulah Home: \". . .
We believe in a practitioner who can be free from sin, to give the power of the fallen, to lead the right life for them, to prepare for heaven.
The description of chastity is \"the most sacred gift God can give a woman \". \"(10)
In 1911, after renting a house for a few years, Beulah home was able to build a new house on two acres of land donated by Ronald Alexander. The new 20-
The home room is completely out of town time, despite the city border (
134 Avenue and 101st Street)
The city council has provided $3,000 for its construction, and $10,000 for construction is debt --
Free in two years(11)
Chatham was the first director.
Her assistant, Mary White, was later forced to leave, but left a widow with a child, Joyce.
She returned home as Mary Finley until she retired in 1964 ---shewas super-
£ 40seven years. (12)
She herself is a mother without a husband, and although she is married and widowed, Finley may be particularly sympathetic to the women who come home.
Regardless of whether there is a respectable widow, it is still difficult for her to raise her children alone.
The difference between her and her client is the marriage license.
Beulah Home provides accommodation and health care for asylum seekers.
While it charges the board and hospital care, it is free for many people who cannot afford it.
This family does its best to be self
Enough to sell milk and eggs, as well as vegetables from its extensive garden, also use this product in its own kitchen.
It often has a major deficit, which is covered by donations from churches and individuals. (13)
Since its inception, its board of directors has included well-known members of the community, such as Bishop Gray, an Anglican rightwing priest, city councillor Arthur kuhin, and j. F.
Lin Ben, Attorney General
General of the province.
It is supported by Rotary Club, Kiwanis Club and the Association of United Business travelers. (14)
The newspaper praised its efforts.
For example: Despite the roster of male board members, families do rely on the work of women in the community.
Dorcas society offers many diapers, baby clothes and blankets needed, as well as quilts for the bed.
The family also received \"candy fruit, jelly, jam and Pickles\" from them \".
They held tea and bazaars, raised money for Beulah Home, and lobbied the city for $1,400 for the construction of a baby cottage in March 1924. (16)
Of course, donors are good Christian women who perform their duties, but kindness and compassion are the basis of their actions.
For practical reasons, the items they provide are the same as those used in their own home.
Pregnant women may have expected a cold, demanding institution at home, but this does not seem to be the case.
One of her experiences wrote, \"I thought I knew exactly what it was and the strict rules and workers who were sheltering us and meeting our needs, however, living apart from us, but do not understand us;
But I found it very different.
When the time for dinner arrived, the workers and the girls gathered at the long table, and the simple blessing asked, the feeling in an institution began to weaken, and I realized that it was indeed a \"home \".
\"This certificate is published in the annual manual of Beulahhom. (17)
Beulah\'s mother is encouraged to keep their children, but finding a job with a child is a challenge.
During the appeal of the baby cottage on 1924, one speaker considered it a privilege to take care of these little ones, especially if we wanted to help mothers who wanted to take care of the baby.
The new baby cabin will make it possible for us to provide the care and love our mothers need when they are out for a living. \" (18)
However, from 1916 to 1959, Beulah Home\'s brochure features baby for adoption, as most of these mothers can\'t afford to raise their babies, despite their willingness(19)
Many babies are adopted, and there is also proof of happy new parents in the brochure.
It seems inappropriate to advertise a baby, including proof from a satisfied \"customer (20)
But these babies need parents, and Beulah needs to overcome the stigma that these children may \"marry\" because their parents are not married.
A mother, Lois, wrote in 1953 that this was the reason she gave up her child adoption, \"I cannot give her the family and care that her mother and father should give her. \" (21)
Between 1909 and 1964, atBeulah Home took care of 5,255 women and 4,512 babies. (22)
At the beginning of the 20 th century, sociologist Murray found that as the new profession of social work began to gain a foothold, thinking changed.
Social workers reject the view of religious reformers who believe that women are \"guilty people\" or \"fallen people \".
This view may be considered class arrogance, but religious women also consider themselves sinners saved by God\'s grace.
Social workers believe that through \"scientific\" research, the root cause of unmarried mothers can be found.
For this reason, the Toronto baby House recorded whether the mother lived at home, whether she was hired as a family servant, and whether she was Canadian.
Whether it\'s a birth or an immigrant, whether it\'s poverty, mental deficit, low family standards, educational or recreational opportunities are factors.
But after 10 years of research, the baby\'s home admitted in 1929 that there was no clear reason. (23)
The refusal of social workers to the idea that unmarried mothers are guilty is, to some extent, a liberation.
But social workers believe that these mothers are \"lacking\" in spirit.
Toronto General Hospital determined in 1917 that only 14 of the 138 \"unmarried mothers\" could be considered \"normal \".
A worker noticed the \"additional\" birth rate of a person it called \"weak\"minded. \' (24)
The root of the work of the staff at Beulah Home in Edmonton is the idea of redemption, that women can change by conversion.
The possibility of such redemption was not envisaged by social workers.
The situation in Quebec is different.
The church there has an arrow-like view of the proper role of women ---
It is better to marry a mother or nun at home.
However, according to Andree Levesque, during the decade between 1929 and 1939, unmarried parents in Quebec gave birth to between 2,335 and 2,668 children a year. (25)
Therefore, some of the babies born in Quebec are single mothers;
Around the Moon, birthstook was filled with land at the hospital to de la Misericorde.
About 60% of people are between the ages of 80 and 20. two;
47 were domestic servants and 31 were living with their families.
They lost their mother.
Five of them admitted they had tried to seek an abortion. (26)
Unlike the Beulah home, La Misericorde seems to be a very demanding place.
Although women entered the agency voluntarily, they did not have the freedom to leave. (
If they try, they will be brought back by detectives. )
They are assigned new names from the roster, often names of humiliation, and are called confessors or confessors.
The secret coat is complete and partly done with the insistence of their family.
No return address on the home of the letter;
Due to the party line in the rural areas, no phone call was announced for birth.
Some people were excluded throughout their stay.
They can only receive visitors once a week, but these visitors must be close family members and they must show the prisoner\'s new name on acard to be accepted.
While more than half of women are over 20
First, they are all treated as minors.
Monitor and control their communications;
They were asked to go to church three times a day and work at hopita for six months to pay off their debts after the child was born (
For delivery and child care)
And defend their \"sins. (27)
Babies born in hospital are given the last name of an intern or nurse and are given the first name from the roster in alphabetical order.
While mothers are encouraged to keep their babies, there are only less than 15 babies.
For them, it is impossible to find a job with their children.
If the other party can afford $1
At 00 a day, she can leave her children at school and visit them once a month. (28)
Some have given up their children for adoption, but many have spent their lives in institutions.
Many people died before the first birth.
In their 1930 s, the infant mortality rate in Montreux was very high (12.
5% per cent in 1931; 7.
38 points in 19 years)
But in the hospital it\'s almost incredible (37. 7 percent).
The deaths of these babies are not due to negligence, but due to pneumonia or pneumonia, and the infection may spread in the nursery like a wildfire. (29)
The situation described by levesque in Montreal is significantly different from that described by Murray in Ontario.
In hospitals where almost all mothers are Catholics, confession is important;
Let them feel their sins. -and to repent.
Responsibility, on the other hand, seems to be an important factor for Protestant families in Ontario;
Religious conversion is desired, but it is related to a decent life for women in the future.
It is clear that Murray is interested in extending the Free State to previous private matters, while levisk is focused on the stigma of women sheltered in hospitals.
Beulah Home is different from these two sources.
Religious conversion is at the heart of its mission, but it can only be voluntary.
In Family Publications, speeches, and other materials, great sympathy was expressed for the plight of mothers without husbands.
As one author began, \"Beulah Home. . .
I have proved to many people who have no friends, broken, a shelter and a door to hope. hearted girl.
Many have found the savior and have taken a place in the good and noble ranks of women. (30)
In all cases, whether it is the father of the child or someone else, the best solution envisaged is marriage.
Others \"get better\" by finding jobs and becoming self\"
Support others when they return to their families.
Beulah Home expanded the hospital in 1927 and became a contracted hospital funded by the Alberta provincial government. (31)
Its receipts also show grants from many towns, villages and municipal districts in Alberta. (32)
It has also received regular and increasing support from the Community Chest, the predecessor of the road to union. (33)
Some women who use family services continue to pay in installments after a long stay. (34)
In the 1960 s, Beulah Home was no longer in operation.
As early as October 1960, the director of the Alberta provincial government hospital Division expressed concern about the high death rate of premature infants at home because of its \"original facility \".
\"He was particularly concerned because, among the first young people, the rate of premature birth was high --
Time mother is the main customer of the family. (35)
At 1961, it\'s three.
The Alberta provincial government has proposed the construction of two modern units, each for 10 girls.
The board of directors of Beulah accepted the proposal and handed over the work to the province on April 1, 1964.
Then it became the home of Woodside. (36)
Beulah Home\'s attitude towards the women it serves is significantly different from misachide la miseriorde\'s.
In the words of the mother, it is a kind of kindness.
Beulah is also different from Murray\'s social work assessment for married mothers in Ontario.
It seems harsh to describe pregnant women as \"falls\" in Edmonton, but beulah Home always insists on the possibility of redemption, not through work and time, but through the mercy of God.
On the other hand, social workers at the beginning of the 20 th century seem to believe that most mothers without husbands are powerless or mentally deficient.
There is no possible redemption in their model.
While Beulah Home understands that its mission is to save the fallen women, it is also trying to meet the actual needs of women seeking asylum.
In an era before the government
With the aid of medical insurance and other social services, the demand for unmarried pregnant women is very high.
The demand is real and Beulah Home has been met for more than 50 years.
Dr. Lee Pollock.
Professor of British, British and Canadian history at MacEwan University in Edmonton.
She has been active in various heritage organizations in Alberta, including the Alberta Historical Resources Foundation and the Edmonton regional art fair. Notes (1)
I\'m getting more uncomfortable with the words historically used to describe the subject, but for the sake of accuracy, I used them in their historical context. (2)
Beulah Home fonds, Alberta Archives (PAA)
Arc\'s rich source of information about the work of BeulahHome.
Most of this article is based on the fonds pr1971. 0047-1. (3)Murray, 255. (4)
Murray quoted, 259. (5)
\"You are no longer called an abandoned person, and your land is no longer called a desolate person. But you will be called the hephseba, and your land is beurah. You can get married on your land. \" Isaiah 62:4 (KJV)(6)
Progress of pilgrims, accurate revised text, ed. Barry E. Horner, (
Lindenhurst, NY: Religious reform Press, 1999),190.
Beulah Land appears in the title of the song, which is Edgar P.
Stites, Beulah Land, \"border Land of heaven\", another one attributed to Harriet Warner Raqqa, asked, \"Isn\'t this theland of Beulah?
Happy place of light, flowers will always bloom, the sun will always shine! \" (7)
Handwritten speech, 1914, Beulah Home fonds, PR 1971. 0047-1. (8)
The pursuit and experience of the whole Divine is at the heart of the divine movement.
This experience of believing and preaching will make the individual\'s heart completely pure.
The rescue and family of unmarried pregnant women are the common beginnings of the sacred movement.
Many families are called Beulah.
Charles Edwin Jones, the persuasion of perfectionists: The Holy movement and the method of America, 1867-1936, (Metuchen, N. J.
Scarecrow Publishing House, 1974),64, 137.
\"The Holy movement term shares this view of beulah land as a reality of the divine and destiny after the death of faithful Christians.
It also refers to the physical premises of the whole holy preaching and experience, in particular the camp meeting.
The Dictionary of the history of the sacred movement, William costlivey, version 2nd.
Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Publishing House, aged 18. (9)Jasper A. Huffman, ed.
The history of Christian Cousins(
New Carlisle, Ohio: Bethel Publishing, 1920),133-34. (10)
Handwritten voice, 1914
Beulah Home fonds: GregoryMarchildon, Douglas vs. Manning: an ideological battle for post-war health insurance Canada, Journal of Canadian Studies, 501(2016): 131. (11)
Newspaper clippings, November 1911, BeulahHome fonds. PR1971. 0047-1. (12)Fuller, Clare.
Elizabeth Mord Chatham (1870-1951).
Global Encyclopedia Online. (May 2015).
Got 28 back.
2015, = Chatham.
Elizabeth Mord (1870-1951)&oldid=132005.
The 70 th anniversary brochure of Beulah home fonds. (13)
Semi-Annual Report, 1912, annual report, 1914, Beulah Homefonds;
Receipt Book, 93. 359. (14)
For example, see newspaper 1922 newspaper clippings, \"The family of the Rotarians luncheon guests at the atebra \";
\"The Kiwanis Club has provided assistance to Beulah Home,\" 1924 newspaper clip;
Donated books 1924-
28, Dorcas Association, PAA, 93. 359. (15)
Clipping File for Beulah Home paper, marked 1912. (16)
The Dorcas community is named after Dorcas (Tabitha)
The Apostle Peter raised from the dead.
According to the Bible, she is known among the poor for her excellent work, especially for the clothing she designed for them (Acts 9: 36-41). Mrs. W. H.
Bell organized the first Dorcas community in Edmonton.
1924-Association of Independent Dorcas30. PAA, 93. 359. (17)
Pr1971 Beulah Home fonds. 0047. (18)
Beulah Home fonds, PAA, PR 1971. 0047-1. (19)
Beulah Home fonds, PAA, PR 1971. 0047. (20)
A large ad on the Edmonton daily in December depicts seven babies under the title, \"How about getting one of them as a permanent Christmas present for yourself?
\"This is the annual adoption advertisement --a-
Baby Sports and published under the authority of C. B.
Hill, Alberta Provincial Government child placement officer.
Hill said he received 60 applications from the seven babies.
Newspaper clippings, PAA, PR 1971. 0047. (21)
Lois Jean Belcher, application for surrender, October 30, 1953.
In the hands of the Author(22)
70 th anniversary brochure, Beulah Home fonds, PAA, pr1971. 0047-8. (23)Murray, 269. (24)Murray, 260.
This is a common assessment of the causes of pregnancy outside marriage.
See also Marianne J.
Morton, \"Faren Women, United charity and maternity home, 1913-
1973, Social Services Review, 621 (1988): 67. (25)Levesque, 170-71. (26)Ibid. , 182. (27)Ibid. , 172-75. (28)Ibid. , 176. (29)
Beulah Home also has problems with infectious diseases from time to time.
It reported two outbreaks of measles and flu in 19 years. PR1971. 0047-1. (30)
Jasper A Hoffman, ed.
The history of Christian Cousins(
New Carlisle, Ohio: Bethel Publishing, 1920),133-4. (31)Malcolm R. Bow, M. D. (
Deputy Minister of Health, Alberta)
Alberta maternity residency act, Journal of Public Health Canada, 1944,3512 (1944): 461-462. (32)Receipts, 1951-53; 1954-56; etc. PAA 93. 359. (33)
For example, please see receipt 1951-1953, PAA 93.
359 and audit report 1962, PAA 71.
106 item 292, Box 21, 1952-April1962. (34)
A woman paid $18 and $20 in July and November (
Her child was born on October)
As well as further payments in February and S5 on 1955. Receipts, 1951-53; 1954-56 PAA 93. 359. (35)J. D. Wallace (
Director of the hospital department to Hon. J. D. Ross. M. D.
Minister of Health, October 24, 1960. (36)
Letter to Friends of the board of directors Beulah HomeA. E.
King, chairman, Mary.
Superintendent Finley. PAA 71.
106 item 292 box 21.